It has been the matter of debate among the scholars that whether the constitution of India is completely federal or unitary in nature.But actually Indian constitution contains both features of a federal constitution and unitary constitution.The question whether the Indian Constitution could be called a federal constitution troubled the minds of the members of the Constituent Assembly.
Indian Constitution provides that some amendments require a special majority.The federal polity, in other words, provides a constitutional device for bringing unity in diversity and for the achievement of common national goals. A federal government exists when the powers of the government for a community are divided substantially according to a principle that there is a single independent authority for the whole area in respect of some matters and there are independent regional authorities for other matters, each set of authorities being co-ordinate to and subordinate to the others within its own sphere.The Constitution of India has adopted federal features; though it does not, in fact, claim that it establishes a federation.In a federal set up there is a two tier of Government with well assigned powers and functions.
In this system the central government and the governments of the units act within a well defined sphere, co-ordinate and at the same time act independently. Wheare defines federal government as an association of states, which has been formed for certain common purposes, but in which the member states retain a large measure of their original independence.However, this is not applicable in case of Indian States.