Dental restorations and tooth replacements were later employed by many geographically diverse, developing civilizations, as can be seen in the following images.
Handheld energy sources have been invaluable in recording dental identification from mass disasters or unidentified remains.
However, investigators may be challenged in cases in which there is an inconsistency of radiologic orientation between antemortem and postmortem radiographs.
The hardness of enamel and its resistance to temperatures as high as 2000ºF mean that tooth identification may be useful in air crashes or forest fires.
Internal details of the maxilla and mandible became useful to the dental investigator during examination of the skull.
Anatomic landmarks, bone loss, caries, crowns, fixed bridges, and tooth restorations show radiolucencies or radio-opacities in antemortem radiographs, which may later be matched to those on postmortem films (see the following images).However, cost, equipment access, and maneuverability may mitigate the practicality of this technology.